ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING
Tools and techniques for classroom assessment
classroom, teachers are the primary assessors of students.
also assist students in developing self-monitoring and self-assessment skills
The different tools
and techniques used in classroom assessment are the following;
Meaning of observation:
is one of the tools of assessment.
is the capacity of the individual to know the environment by the use of his
enables us to watch the overt behavioral changes among our students.
should be out of the knowledge of the person.
is nothing but keenly watching the external behaviour of persons in appropriate
situations controlled or uncontrolled.”
C. V. Good
is careful and systematic viewing of a selected situation and recording then
and there, what is perceived”.
improve our teaching.
use as an assessment tool.
get to know the students.
communicate with students.
identify the special needs of the students.
guide curriculum development.
is selective and purposeful.
record of observation is immediately.
Example of observation:
You are concerned about the study habits of
a student. Throughout a day, make notes of the student’s attitude during
various class activities, times when he/she is off task, which students she
works with best, how long she can maintain attention to non-academic
collecting this context- rich information, you may have a better idea of how to
help the child improve her study habits or how to adapt your instruction to
involve her more.
Observation is an important part of the
teaching and learning process.
enables teachers to understand the unique abilities and needs of each student.
is useful in evaluating the behaviour and personality of students in different
Procedures to be followed for Good Observation
appropriate situations, observe the whole event.
only one aspect of an individual’s behavior at a time.
without the knowledge of the observed and record then and there what is
should not mix his opinions and guesses with the observed data.
should be continuously carried out, within the time schedule.
Steps Involved in Carrying Out a Good Observation
Determining the details to be collected through observation: The behavior
aspect/ incident to be observed should be determined beforehand.
The individual or group to be observed should be precisely indicated.
should be given clear briefing about places where observation should take place, timings, time interval,
the minimum number of times an incident/ aspect should be observed and similar other predetermined details.
the method of recording the observations then and there and also the tools to
be used (Check list, Descriptive Rating
Scale, Score Cards, Forms to record tally marks etc.)
2. Executing the observation skillfully and
recording the data carefully.
3. Studying and interpreting the recorded data.
anecdotal record is a running description of actual examples of behavior of a
student as observed by teachers and the counselor.
´ “Anecdotes are descriptive accounts of
episodes or occurrence in a daily life of the student. “
- Brown and
´ “An Anecdotal record is a
report of a significant episode in the life of a student.
´ The anecdotal
record contains description by the teacher of a significant accuracy or episode
in the life of the child
´ It may consist of a narrative of the incident
may also record the behavior of the students.
to personal problems the interaction with other children
tensions, habitual mood and temper are the properties noted.
problems arise in making and interpreting records. There is a tendency to
include the evaluation, interpretation, generalization.
Values and uses of Anecdotal record:
´ They are very helpful in understanding
the child behavior in diverse situations
records provides the data for a pupil
gives the information about a particular student personally
records tend to the less reliable then other tools.
are time consuming to write.
MAINTAINING ANECDOTAL RECORD:
can use a three-ring binder for storing their anecdotal notes on students. At
the beginning of the binder teachers can keep:
An index page with the names of all students and spaces for recording
A second page that includes the list of common behavior and learning outcomes
to be observed. A similar sheet is may be used for each student with additional
columns to record the observation date for each point.
sheets enable teachers to keep track of students who were observed, the
frequency of observations and to ensure that students were uniformly observed
for per-recorded behaviors and outcomes.
pages can be maintained for individual students. Teachers can maintain a
standard recording template which can include :
1. Date of observation.
2. A three-columned table to record
events and behaviors (ABC format)
3. Additional space or separate page
for adding comments, recommendations and action plan.
this template, teachers can track students’ progress efficiently
and validates of other structural instruments.
Provision of insight into total behavioral
Needs no special training.
Use of formative feedback.
Economical and easy to develop.
Open ended and can catch unexpected
Can select behaviors or events of
interest and ignore others or can sample a wide range of behaviors (different
times, environment and people)
Limitations of Anecdotal Records:
carelessly recorded, the purpose will not be fulfilled.
records events of interest to the person doing the observing.
of the record depends on the memory of the person doing the observing.