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B.Ed Study Materials - ASSESSMENT



Tools and techniques for classroom assessment


In the classroom, teachers are the primary assessors of students.

Teachers also assist students in developing self-monitoring and self-assessment skills and strategies.

The different tools and techniques used in classroom assessment are the following;




      Anecdotal records

      Check lists

      Rating scale

Meaning of observation:

      Observation is one of the tools of assessment.

      Observation is the capacity of the individual to know the environment by the use of his senses.

      Observation enables us to watch the overt behavioral changes among our students.

      Observation should be out of the knowledge of the person.

Definitions of observation

      “Observation is nothing but keenly watching the external behaviour of persons in appropriate situations controlled or uncontrolled.”

                                  C. V. Good

      “Observation is careful and systematic viewing of a selected situation and recording then and there, what is perceived”.


Aims of Observation:

      To improve our teaching.

      To use as an assessment tool.

      To get to know the students.

      To communicate with students.

      To identify the special needs of the students.

      To guide curriculum development.

Characteristics of observation:

      Observation is selective and purposeful.

      Observation is systematic.

      The record of observation is immediately. 

Example of observation:

          You are concerned about the study habits of a student. Throughout a day, make notes of the student’s attitude during various class activities, times when he/she is off task, which students she works with best, how long she can maintain attention to non-academic activities.

      After collecting this context- rich information, you may have a better idea of how to help the child improve her study habits or how to adapt your instruction to involve her more.


       Observation is an important part of the teaching and learning process.

      Observation enables teachers to understand the unique abilities and needs of each student.

      Observation is useful in evaluating the behaviour and personality of students in different situations.


Procedures to be followed for Good Observation

u In appropriate situations, observe the whole event.

u Observe only one aspect of an individual’s behavior at a time.

u Observe, without the knowledge of the observed and record then and there what is observed.

u Observer should not mix his opinions and guesses with the observed data.

u Observation should be continuously carried out, within the time schedule.

Steps Involved in Carrying Out a Good Observation

1. Proper planning

         a. Determining the details to be collected through observation: The behavior aspect/ incident to be observed should be determined beforehand.

             b. The individual or group to be observed should be precisely indicated.

C. Observes should be given clear briefing about places where observation  should take place, timings, time interval, the minimum number of times an incident/ aspect should be observed and similar  other predetermined details.

D. Selecting the method of recording the observations then and there and also the tools to be used   (Check list, Descriptive Rating Scale, Score Cards, Forms to record tally marks etc.)

2. Executing the observation skillfully and recording the data carefully.

3. Studying and interpreting the recorded data.


     An anecdotal record is a running description of actual examples of behavior of a student as observed by teachers and the counselor.


´   “Anecdotes are descriptive accounts of episodes or occurrence in a daily life of the student. “

                               - Brown and Martin

´  “An Anecdotal record is a report of a significant episode in the life of a student.

                                  - Rather Louis

Salient features

´       The anecdotal record contains description by the teacher of a significant accuracy or episode in the life of the child

´  It may consist of a narrative of the incident only.

´ It may also record the behavior of the students.

´ Adjustment to personal problems the interaction with other children

´ Personal tensions, habitual mood and temper are the properties noted.

´ Many problems arise in making and interpreting records. There is a tendency to include the evaluation, interpretation, generalization.

Values and uses of Anecdotal record:

´           They are very helpful in understanding the child behavior in diverse situations

´ This records  provides the data for a pupil

´ It gives the information about a particular student personally


´ Anecdotal records tend to the less reliable then other tools.

´ They are time consuming to write.



u Teachers can use a three-ring binder for storing their anecdotal notes on students. At the beginning of the binder teachers can keep:

1. An index page with the names of all students and spaces for recording observation dates.

2. A second page that includes the list of common behavior and learning outcomes to be observed. A similar sheet is may be used for each student with additional columns to record the observation date for each point.

u These sheets enable teachers to keep track of students who were observed, the frequency of observations and to ensure that students were uniformly observed for per-recorded behaviors and outcomes.

u Separate pages can be maintained for individual students. Teachers can maintain a standard recording template which can include :

         1. Date of observation.

         2. A three-columned table to record events and behaviors (ABC format) 

         3. Additional space or separate page for adding comments, recommendations and action plan.        

u Using this template, teachers can track students’ progress efficiently

Advantages of Anecdotal Records:


1.     Supplements and validates of other structural instruments.

2.     Provision of insight into total behavioral incidents.

3.     Needs no special training.

4.     Use of formative feedback.

5.     Economical and easy to develop.

6.     Open ended and can catch unexpected events.

7.     Can select behaviors or events of interest and ignore others or can sample a wide range of behaviors (different times, environment and people)

Limitations of Anecdotal Records:

u If carelessly recorded, the purpose will not be fulfilled.

u Only records events of interest to the person doing the observing.

u Quality of the record depends on the memory of the person doing the observing.

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