CREATING AN INCLUSIVE SCHOOL
MODELS OF DISABILITY
SALIENT FEATURES OF DIFFERENT MODELS OF DISABILITY
• Models of disability can provide social workers with the basis for a systematic approach to understanding the causes in the contexts of disability.
• Models of disability are tools for defining impairment and for providing a basis upon which government and society can devise strategies for meeting the needs of disabled people.
• Models are influenced by two fundamental philosophies. The first sees disabled people as dependent upon society. This can result in paternalism, segregation and discrimination.
• The second perceives disabled people as customers of what society has to offer. This leads to choice, empowerment, equality of human rights and integration.
SALIENT FEATURES OF DIFFERENT MODELS OF DISABILITY:
The different models of disability includes
1) Individual model
2) Social model
3) Medical model
4) Nagy model
5) Quebec disability production process model
6) Human rights model
7) Professional model
8) Transactional model
9) Charity model
10) Functional model
11) Rehabilitation model
There are two fundamental points that need to
be made about the individual model
• Firstly, it locates the ‘problem’ of disability within the individual and secondly it seems the causes of this problem from the functional limitations which are arise from the disability.
• These two points are underpinned by what might be called ‘the personal tragedy theory of disability’ which suggests that disability is some terrible chance event which occurs at random to unfortunate individuals.
• The social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is organized, rather than by a person’s impairment or disease.
• When barriers are removed, disabled people can be independent and equal in society, with choice and control over their own lives.
• Disabled people developed the social model of disability because the traditional medical model did not explain their personal experience of disability or help to develop more inclusive ways of living.
• It is also referred to as the Minority Group model of disability.
• The social model of disability is based on the distinction between the terms impairment and disability.
• The social model of disability identifies systematic barriers, derogatory attitudes, and social exclusion, which make it difficult or impossible for individuals with impairment to attain their valued functioning’s.
• The professional model has provided a traditional response to disability issues and can be seen as an offshoot of the medical model.
• Within its Framework professionals follow a process of identifying the impairment and its limitations and taking the necessary action to improve the positive of disabled person
• This has tended to produce a system in which an authoritarian overactive service provider prescribes and acts for a passive client.
• This relationship has been described as that of fixer (the professional) and fixed (the client) and clearly contains an inequality that limits collaboration.
• Although a professional may be caring the imposition of solutions can be less than benevolent.
• If the decisions are made by the expert the client has no choice and is unable to exercise the basic human right of freedom over his her own actions.
• In the extreme it undermines the client’s dignity by removing the ability to participate in the simplest everyday decisions affecting his/her life.
• The focus on the potential capabilities of learners and on how to remove barriers to learning and participation.
• This model lies somewhere between the medical model and the social model. Disability emerges when one’s functioning in the society is evaluated using the societal norms. In fact we are all different in various ways including our set of capabilities but these differences become impairment only when we cannot negotiate the way others have set it up.
• For example though a person is able to walk .if he cannot climb the steep steps of a town bus and get in then he is considered to be a disabled person with low floors he can function with ease and he will have no functional disability.
• Similarly most of the left handers are capable of carrying out all tasks like others.
• Therefore it provisions are made in the society to make the transaction space suitable for all then all can function with ease and will not experience any disability.
• Those who are fairly short may not experience any problem in carrying out their daily routines except in a grocery store where top shelf items out of their reach.
• Thus in the grocery shop their height become disability. However in the grocery shop if step leader are provided in each else then even short people can pick up items from any she.
• I.e. the disability due to height will disappear.
• Therefore disability according to Transactional model is based upon the provisions and functional practices.