TET Notes - Educational Thoughts of Paulo Freire


 Educational Thoughts of Paulo Freire


u To name (Named the world)


u To reflect(Dialogue and Conversation)


u To act(PRAXIS)


To name


v Naming is developing consciousness but consciousness that is understood to have the power to transform reality.


v He gave a voice to those who were oppressed so educators who saved them could better their oppression.


To Reflect


v He says ‘‘Dialogue is the encounter between men, mediated by the world, in order to name the world.


v Freire was concerned about using the imagination to produce new possible ways of naming and acting in the world when with people around literacy.


To Act


v This action is not merely the doing of something which Freire describes as activism.


v It is not simply action based reflection.


v It is action which embodies qualities which include a commitment to human wellbeing, a search for truth and a respect for others.


v This enables society to act in ways which produce justice and allow mankind to flourish.


v Praxis means practice as different from theory.


v It is also called practical application of theory.


Qualities of Teachers in Freire Scheme of Education


v Self-confidence, self-respect and respect for others.


v Lovingness not only for students but also towards the process of learning.


v Courage to fight to love and to conquer fears to be a political agent of change to improve democracy.


v Tolerance, this requires respect, discipline and ethics.


v Decisiveness that is the ability to make decisions.


v Security it means confidence in one’s actions.


v Wisdom it means to use both patience and impatience in unison to work patiently impatient never surrendering entirely to either.


v Verbal parsimony it means those who live in the assumption of patience-impatience will rarely lose control over their words and they will rarely exceed the limits of considered yet energetic discourse.


 Qualities of progressive teachers produce the following in their schools

v Thinking


v Participation


v Creation


v Speaking


v Love


v Ability to Guess


The following are the rights of teachers according to fieire


v Freedom in teaching


v The right to speak


v The right to better conditions for pedagogical work.


v The right to criticize the authorities without fear of retaliation.



Brief Life History


v He was born in portages.


v He was a Brazilian educator and philosopher.


v He advocated critical pedagogy.


v He is best known for his work on ‘pedagogy of the oppressed’.


v He wrote many books such as, ‘Education as the practice of freedom’ and ‘Pedagogy of oppressed’ are famous in his philosophy of education.


Special Reference to the Concepts – Child Centred Education


a)   Activity Method


v Learning by doing is the main focus in this method.


v The activities used in this approach can be generalized under three main categories.


                                                                                              i.            Exploratory   :  It is gathering knowledge, concept and skill.

                                                                                           ii.            Constructive:  It is getting experience through creative works.

                                                                                         iii.            Expressional:  It means giving presentations.


          Role of Teacher

v A planner an organizer and evaluator.


v Facilitator


v Decision Maker


v Knowledge Imparter


v Disciplinarian


b)   Discovery  Method


v Discovery learning takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge.


v It is the method through which students interact with their environment by exploring it.


v It is the best method for teaching science subject at schools.


c)    Dialogue Learning


v In dialogue learning educators design learning activities by considering answers to the following questions.


                                                                              i.            Who are the learners?


                                                                            ii.            Why the situation that calls for the learning arises?


                                                                         iii.            When will learning take place?


                                                                         iv.            Where will learning take place?


                                                                            v.            How do the learners interact?


v The Dialogue Education approach demands integration between theory design and implementation.


v The integration leads to improved learning and resulting behaviour change.
























TET Notes - Educational Thoughts of Plato


Educational Thoughts of Plato


v Educator should take advantage of this in the child and educate him.


v He should pay attention to the objects which surround the child.


v The process of education advances through this constant interaction between these objects and mind.


v A beautiful environment provides the right stimulus by which the mind develops.


v For this reason the child should be kept in a beautiful environment.


v The human being requires such environment not only in his childhood but also throughout his entire life.


v Because according to Plato the process of education is never complete.


v Plato laid the greatest stress on mental development in education.


v Education aims not merely at providing information but at training the individual in his duties and rights as a citizen.




                                                                                                              i.            Bodily Development

                                                                                                            ii.            Educational Impressions

                                                                                                         iii.            Training in Music


                                                 Role of Teacher

v The educator is considered to have the greatest importance.


v He is like the torch – bearer who leads a man lying in dark cave.


v His task is to bring the educed out of darkness of the cave into the light of the day.


v The methods of teaching Plato believe imitation to be of the greatest importance he shows that the child learns a great deal through limitation.


                                                     Education According to Social Status

v In any society the productive class is invariably the largest in size.


v In Plato’s scheme of education this class is granted only primary education which implies that productive class actually requires no more than primary education.


v Plato’s educational plan pays no attention to the individual differences.


v He suggested the some kind of education to be given to the entire class of people according to a uniform curriculum.


v Plato’s insistence on philosophy could only lead to an increase in number of contemplative individuals at the expense of more practical members.


v Plato’s curriculum neglected training in literature by stressing the importance of training in mathematics.



v In spite of the above defects many of the finest teachers still consider Plato as their only true guide.









TET Notes - Educational Thoughts of John Dewey


Educational Thoughts

      Of   John Dewey


Aims of Education


v Education should help an individual to establish those principles and standards that are immediate importance and value to him.


v Education should be able to equip the child to earn his livelihood.


v To equip the individual as be too able to test the truth and utility of values that are established through his education by experiments and examination.


v Education should be capable of making a child of leaving those standards and wishes whose satisfaction may hinder the economic efficiency of others.


v Education should be capable of stopping the children from trying to satisfy those desires and wishes whose fulfilment will directly and indirectly disturb others.


v School should preserve continue and re-build the activity with which the child is familiar at home. It should be natural extension of home.


v School should teach at least one vocation which may be helpful to them in their actual life in earning their livelihood. The vocation should be in accordance with the requirements of society.


v School should give moral education through social conjoint activities.


v School should be the reflection of society. It should change according to the situation.   




v Curriculum should bring the disciplines together to focus on solving problems in an interdisciplinary way.


v It should be predetermined on the basis of the interest and experience of the child and should be in accordance with the social requirements.


v The curriculum must follow the progressive organisation of knowledge consisting of educative experience and problems.


v Educational experience is like a creativity which leads to further experiences.


v Subjects in curriculum should be organized according children’s utility.


v Activities are directed by the problems of the actual life from the curriculum.


v Curriculum should be constructed keeping in view the innate tendencies, interests and capabilities of the child.


Teaching Method


v The method of teaching are reflected in his work, ‘How we think’ and ‘Interest an effort in Education’.


v The best methods of teaching, according to Dewey, are hands – on problem solving, experimenting, and projects, often having students work in groups.


v He believed that learners should apply their knowledge to new learners; he believed that learners should apply their knowledge to real situations through experimental enquiry.


v The methods should aim at co-ordinating the subjects with the activities and life.





v He treats the teacher to be the servant of the society whose duty is to lay foundation of a social life.


v The teacher should create such an atmosphere in the school that may lead to the development of the social personality of the child.


v The educators to be so important that he calls them God’s representative on earth.


v The educator must try to engage the children in activities that compel them to think and reason things for themselves.





v He was of the opinion that while planning education, we should keep in mind the psychological and social aspects of the children and their needs.




v Discipline is an internal power which inclines man to think and behave according to social norms.


v For the development of this power or quality, he emphasized on the need of democratic environment.


v The children in such an environment are under no pressure.


v The children in such an environment are free to select activities according to their interests, aptitudes, abilities and needs and to execute them freely.


v Another feature of democratic environment is love, sympathy and co-operation.


v He has clarified that no question arises for the child to become indiscipline in such an environment.


v According to him self-discipline is the true discipline.


GROUP   II   &   II A          தமிழ்          பகுதி – இ தமிழ் அறிஞர்களும் , தமிழ் தொண்டும் புதுக்கவிதை – ந.பிச்சமூர்த்தி , சி.சு...